In contrast to puberty, Menopause marks the end of the sequence of cycles and fertility in women.
The definition of "pre-menopause" does not seem to be fixed. For some it is actually the fertile period that began with puberty while for others it is the period where the cycles are becoming irregular !
This is followed by a "troubled period" usually called "perimenopause" which ovulatory cycles (So fertile) and anovulatory meet. They usually become irregular, the duration and abundance of rules can become irregular, with very light losses on some days. It can last from 2 to 7 years.
Menopause is installed "confirmed" when the woman has had no menstrual periods 12 consecutive months.
What happens to the menopause ?
During the period called "perimenopause", female hormones decrease often irregular and gradual lift with temporary (So with the "symptoms") but sometimes brutally (sudden menopause) or regularly (no symptoms, you need a hormone test to see that.)
When the decline is irregular, progesterone first decreases causing an excess of estrogen. If the cycle shortens, the pre-ovulatory phase is maintained and the luteal phase, which corresponds to the development and implantation of the embryo is reduced. There is still frequently ovulations but implantation is compromised ; in case of early pregnancy, the deficiency of progesterone can cause early miscarriages.
In the next phase of peri-menopause, estrogen begin their decline : this phase is generally identified by the hot flashes corresponding to the falls and surges on the same day of the release estrogenic. Often the fall of estrogen is also accompanied by vaginal dryness. In a surge of estrogen, the woman is still fertile, even very fertile, or exceptionally fertile even for some, with risks of multiple pregnancy naturally, but the reduction of progesterone in the previous phase leads to a careful monitoring of the evolution of pregnancy.
In the last phase, the menopause sets the pace with a stop estrogen-progesterone-ovulation, marking the definitive end of the fertile period : the ovaries are no longer able to bring an egg to mature even if the uterus can also support the development of a child. This facility is rarely sudden and usually happens after a succession of irregular cycles and anovulatory. Use words that menopause is definitely settled after one year. A ce tested, the only hope of pregnancy has an egg donation. The age of menopause is normally induced by genetics and is a good indicator to know the age when his mother, his aunt and his grandmother has itself been in menopause.
All are female hormones in the brain orchestration, In particular, the axis hypothalamus-pituitary-pineal going to send messages to the ovaries. The whole chain is involved endocrine, upstream or downstream. And of course the psychological factor may play !
The precursor used to generate the hormones – the raw material or building block – is the "good" cholesterol and oxygen is as essential a transformer (away prégnologne). Difficulties in the sphere liver will also be involved in this process since the hormone is responsible for liver remove hormones "waste".
Menopause occurs in most women between 45 and 55 years, with some cases to 35-40 years. If it occurs before 40 years, it is considered premature.
The usefulness of menopause is not determined, since it exists only in rare species of mammals (we and whales.) One hypothesis is that of “grand-mère” : menopausal women living older because they escaped the dangers of birth late and they could help their grown children in the education of generations. Availability and improved the survival of their progeny compared with those of “non-menopausal”, and transmitting the character of menopause parentage…
The hormonal tests will allow to monitor the hormonal and whether hormonal biological age is the official age.
The hormonal tests
|Hormone||Levels in menopause nmol / l|
|FSH||20-120 IU / l|
|LH||10-70 mIU / l
(compared with the rate of luteal phase 10-70)
|Oestradiol||0.04-0.18 nmol/l ou
11-49 ng / l
|Progesterone||0.70-1.82 nmol/l ou
0.21-0.56 mg / l
(compared with the rate of follicular phase
before ovulation 0.70-6.70 nmol/l ou 0.21-2.10 mg / l
L'AMH (hormone antimüllérienne) can be used to estimate the age at which menopause will occur because it is secreted by the maturing follicle and oocyte reserve indicates.
It can usefully help identify women not to delay a proposed child at risk of menopause before birth.
Age at dosing
Menopause between 35 and 38 years
Menopause before 45 years
After menopause 50 years
|20 years||2.8 ng / ml||4.1 ng / ml||4.5 ng / ml|
|25 years||3.3 ng / ml||3.8 ng / ml|
|30 years||2.4 ng / ml||2.9 ng / ml|
Source “Researchers develop accurate way to predict the age when women will hit the menopause”, Press Release 27 June 2010
In some cultures, menopause is celebrated as the end of the burden of pregnancy : is a time of release (sexual and social) which opens to the woman for the last part of his life. The symptoms seem to be less important (even among the more sensitive Western) with this state of mind ...
And you, how do you ?
- sur internet : Doctissimo, Femina.fr, Passeportsante.net
- books : “Human Anatomy and Physiology"Elaine N. Marieb, Natural plant hormones today"Dominique Rueff
Photo credit : “The 7 Gals of Menopause” HA! Designes – Artbyheather,”Medical Analysis Laboratory "by hugovk
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